Coffeeshop Physics

It has been over a year since my last post, and since then, I have started developing my own blog. (I was just a guest author here.) It is called Coffeeshop Physics, and it is a relaxed presentation of physics topics that I think are interesting. The name was inspired by my experiences with Cafe Scientifique, a series of coffeeshop presentations about the sciences— I want to replicate that kind of atmosphere online.

Whereas the Everything Seminar was intended for mathematical audiences, Coffeeshop Physics is for general audiences, much like Cafe Sci. Therefore, I don’t assume that the readers know what a derivative is (relevant for yesterday’s article), but you might find it interesting anyway. Many of the topics that I’m writing about are things that I struggled to understand as an undergrad and even a grad student, the intuition behind the mathematical formalism.

For instance, my favorite article so far is about curved surfaces and gravitation. When I studied general relativity, I could push Christoffel symbols around, but I was frustrated by the fact that I couldn’t visualize the problems that we were working on.

I got a better appreciation for curved surfaces by learning to sew, and after making about a dozen little models, the picture came into focus. Here is a photo of a model of space-time at the surface of the earth, in which we can see that a freefall is a shorter path through space-time than just standing on the ground. It doesn’t have Minkowski structure, so it is not quantitatively accurate (it should open up at the top, not the bottom), but it is a picture to keep at the back of one’s mind.

I’ve also turned the spectrum of resonances in electron-positron collisions into a sound, so that we can hear what it sounds like when the collide, and found a nice demonstration of entropy in a story about a leprechaun tying ribbons on trees in a forest. If you enjoyed the What Killed Madame Curie? detective serial that I started on this blog, I am expanding it into a novel, with links on the site.

Cheers,
— Jim

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So phase space is the same identical underlying space as state space, just with a different set of coordinates. Any particular state of the system can be completely specified either by giving all the variables or by giving the values of all the .
Going From State Space to Phase Space
Now, the momenta are the derivatives of the Lagrangian with respect to the velocities, . So, how do we get from a function of positions and velocities to a function of positions and the derivatives of that function with respect to the velocities?
How It’s Done in Thermodynamics
To see how, we’ll briefly review a very similar situation in thermodynamics: recall the expression that naturally arises for incremental energy, say for the gas in a heat engine, is

where is the entropy and is the temperature. But is not a handy variable in real life — temperature is a lot easier to measure! We need an energy-like function whose incremental change is some function of rather than The early thermodynamicists solved this problem by introducing the concept of the free energy,

so that This change of function (and variable) was important: the free energy turns out to be more practically relevant than the total energy, it’s what’s available to do work.
So we’ve transformed from a function to a function (ignoring , which are passive observers here).
Math Note: the Legendre Transform
The change of variables described above is a standard mathematical routine known as the Legendre transform. Here’s the essence of it, for a function of one variable.
Suppose we have a function that is convex, which is math talk for it always curves upwards, meaning is positive. Therefore its slope, we’ll call it
,
is a monotonically increasing function of . For some physics (and math) problems, this slope , rather than the variable is the interesting parameter. To shift the focus to , Legendre introduced a new function, , defined by

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indeed are favorite situations on science as observed prof dr mircea orasasnu and prof drd horia orasanu and followed and therefore we find It is clear that is a scalar function whose value depends on the position of (and the fixed point ), but not on the path taken between and . Thus, if is the origin of our coordinate system, and an arbitrary point whose position vector is , then we have effectively defined a scalar field .
Consider a point that is sufficiently close to that the velocity is constant along . Let be the position vector of relative to . It then follows that (see Section A.18)
(4.88)

The previous equation becomes exact in the limit that . Because is arbitrary (provided that it is sufficiently close to ), the direction of the vector is also arbitrary, which implies that
(4.89)

We, thus, conclude that if the motion of a fluid is irrotational then the associated velocity field can always be expressed as minus the gradient of a scalar function of position, . This scalar function is called the velocity potential, and flow which is derived from such a potential is known as potential flow. Note that the velocity potential is undefined to an arbitrary additive constant.
We have demonstrated that a velocity potential necessarily exists in a fluid whose velocity field is irrotational. Conversely, when a velocity potential exists the flow is necessarily irrotational. This follows because [see Equation (A.176)]
(4.90)

Incidentally, the fluid velocity at any given point in an irrotational fluid is normal to the constant- surface that passes through that point.
If a flow pattern is both irrotational and incompressible then we have
(4.91)

and

13. prof dr mircea orasanu Says:

these can be extended as cab observed by prof dr mircea orasanu b and prof drd horia orasanu with Heaviside and followed in caseof LAGRANGIAN ]. Motivated by marine control literature, in [17] based on a simplified model of the snake robot, using cascade systems theory, it was proved that if the heading angle of the snake
robot was controlled to the LOS angle, then also the position of the CM of the robot would converge to the desired path. We will show that a similar guidance-based control strategy can successfully steer the robot towards the desired path. However, we perform the model-based control design based on a more accurate model of the snake robot which does not contain the simplifying assumptions of [17] which are valid for small joint angles
1 INTRODUCTION
. As discussed above, this is probably due to the modification of the joint controller (68) due to the lack of velocity measurements in the lab. Figure Figure1010 shows that the head angle of the robot tracked the reference head angle defined by the constraint function (46) and that the tracking error converged to a neighbourhood of the origin. Figure Figure1111 shows the motion of the CM of the robot in the x-y plane, which converged to and followed the desired path. Figure Figure1212 compares the motion of the CM during the simulation and the experiment, which were performed using the same controller parameters in order to obtain comparable results. In particular, from Figure Figure12,12, it can be seen that the physical snakeThis idea should be familiar from Section 13.2. The new phase space considered here is an example of a symplectic manifold, which has many important properties, such as being orientable and having an even number of dimensions [39].
possessed – to cite Helmholtz – “a valuable heuristic principle and leitmotif in striving for a formulation of the laws of new classes of phenomena” (Helmholtz, 1886, p. 210), or were these principles – as Ernst Mach held – just useful rules that served the economy of thought in various domains of experience?
A second important reorientation took place in variational calculus, the mathematical discipline on which the PLA was based and which had accompanied it through more than two centuries of philosophical debates. Karl Weierstraß’ critical investigations demonstrated that the precise relationship between the PLA and the differential equations resulting from it was extremely subtle, and that physicists’ customary reasoning in solving important cases only obtained under supplementary conditions. The generations of Euler and Lagrange typically had identified the PLA and the differential equations resulting from it regardless of their metaphysical attitude towards the PLA and the quantity of action. In the 19th century,