the last inequality yields

.

Therefore

,

Where

Then, by repeating the scheme of the proof of Theorem 4 [4], we obtain estimates (1). Lemma is proved.

Proof of Theorem. According to Lemma

, (2) . (3)

(2), (3) and the relations bottom follow from theorem

.

Theorem is proved.

Corollary. If , then .

REFERENCES

[1] Emelichev V., Podkapaev D. Quantitative stability analysis for vector problems of 0-1 programming // Discrete Opnimization . – 2010.- v.7.- p. 48-63. (in Russian)

[2] Devyaterikova M.V., Kolokolov A.A. Stability Analysis o Some Discrete Optimization Algorithms // Automation and Remote Control, 2004. № 3. pp. 48-54.

[3] Ramazanov A.B. On stability o the gradient algorithm in convex discrete optimization problems and related questions // J. Discrete Mathematics and Applications, 2011, vol. 21, Issue 4, pp. 465-476.

Camille Jordan’s father, Esprit-Alexandre Jordan (1800-1888), was an engineer who had been educated at the École Polytechnique. Camille’s mother, Joséphine Puvis de Chavannes, was the sister of the famous painter Pierre Puvis de Chavannes who was the foremost French mural painter of the second half of the 19th century. Camille’s father’s family were also quite well known; a grand-uncle also called Ennemond-Camille Jordan (1771-1821) achieved a high political position while a cousin Alexis Jordan (1814-1897) was a famous botanist.

Jordan studied at the Lycée de Lyon and at the Collège d’Oullins. He entered the École Polytechnique to study mathematics in 1855. This establishment provided training to be an engineer and Jordan, like many other French mathematicians of his time, qualified as an engineer and took up that profession. Cauchy in particular had been one to take this route and, like Cauchy, Jordan was able to work as an engineer and still devote considerable time to mathematical research. Jordan’s doctoral thesis was in two parts with the first part Sur le nombre des valeurs des fonctions Ⓣ being on algebra. The second part entitled Sur des periodes des fonctions inverses des intégrales des différentielles algebriques Ⓣ was on integrals of the form ∫ u dz where u is a function satisfying an algebraic equation f (u, z) = 0. Jordan was examined on 14 January 1861 by Duhamel, Serret and Puiseux. In fact the topic of the second part of Jordan’s thesis had been proposed by Puiseux and it was this second part which the examiners preferred. After the examination he continued to work as an engineer, first at Privas, then at Chalon-sur-Saône, and finally in Paris.

Jordan married Marie-Isabelle Munet, the daughter of the deputy mayor of Lyon, in 1862. They had eight children, two daughters and six sons.

From 1873 he was an examiner at the École Polytechnique where he became professor of analysis on 25 November 1876. He was also a professor at the Collège de France from 1883 although until 1885 he was at least theoretically still an engineer by profession. It is significant, however, that he found more time to undertake research when he was an engineer. Most of his original research dates from this period.

Jordan was a mathematician who worked in a wide variety of different areas essentially contributing to every mathematical topic which was studied at that time. The references [3], [4], [5], [6] are to the four volumes of his complete works and the range of topics is seen from the contents of these. Volumes 1 and 2 contain Jordan’s papers on finite groups, Volume 3 contains his papers on linear and multilinear algebra and on the theory of numbers, while Volume 4 contains papers on the topology of polyhedra, differential equations, and mechanics.

Topology (called analysis situs at that time) played a major role in some of his first publications which were a combinatorial approach to symmetries. He introduced important topological concepts in 1866 built on his knowledge of Riemann’s work in topology but not the work by Möbius for he was unaware of it. Jordan introduced the notion of homotopy of paths looking at the deformation of paths one into the other. He defined a homotopy group of a surface without explicitly using group terminology.

Jordan was particularly interested in the theory of finite groups. In fact this is not really an accurate statement, for it would be reasonable to argue that before Jordan began his research in this area there was no theory of finite groups. It was Jordan who was the first to develop a systematic approach to the topic. It was not until Liouville republished Galois’s original work in 1846 that its significance was noticed at all. Serret, Bertrand and Hermite had attended Liouville’s lectures on Galois theory and had begun to contribute to the topic but it was Jordan who was the first to formulate the direction the subject would take.

To Jordan a group was what we would call today a permutation group; the concept of an abstract group would only be studied later. To give an illustration of the way he tried to build up groups theory we will say a little about his contributions to finite soluble groups. The standard way to define such groups today would be to say that they are groups whose composition factors are abelian groups. Indeed Jordan introduced the concept of a composition series (a series of subgroups each normal in the preceding with the property that no further terms could be added to the series so that it retains that property). The composition factors of a group G are the groups obtained by computing the factor groups of adjacent groups in the composition series. Jordan proved the Jordan-Hölder theorem, namely that although groups can have different composition series, the set of composition factors is an invariant of the group.

Although the classification of finite abelian groups is straightforward, the classification of finite soluble groups is well beyond mathematicians today and for the foreseeable future. Jordan, however, clearly saw this as an aim of the subject, even if it was not one which might ever be solved. He made some remarkable contributions to how such a classification might proceed setting up a recursive method to determine all soluble groups of order n for a given n.

A second major piece of work on finite groups was the study of the general linear group over the field with p elements, p prime. He applied his work on classical groups to determine the structure of the Galois group of equations whose roots were chosen to be associated with certain geometrical configurations.

His work on group theory done between 1860 and 1870 was written up into a major text Traité des substitutions et des équations algebraic que

And for the Lagrange equations we have,

where the constraints hold such that,

Green function for the classical Orr-Sommerfeld equations and derive sharp semigroup bounds for linearized Navier-Stokes equations around a boundary layer profile. This is part of the long program to understand the stability of classical Prandtl’s layers appearing in the inviscid limit of incompressible Navier-Stokes flows.

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